February 12th, 2011 10:48 EST
Effects of Ultimate Revolution in Egypt: Freedom or Army Rule?
Mr. Hosni Mubarak`s exit from Kuba Palace last evening carried no surprise for those who understand the existing combination and permutation among the three powers, USA, Egypt and Israel. Whatever the rule of Hosni Mubarak had been, that is no more a point for discussion for the students of the Arab history and Anglo-American interest in the Arab World. Britain occupied Egypt in 1882 and continued till the end of Automan Empire after the First World War.
Egypt, though remained a monarchy till 1952 yet British interest in the region remained supreme. The British colonialist robbed even the dead bodies of the Pharaohs were robbed where they were laid in sleep for centuries. The Egyptian wealth was carried to London. The British Museum stands as witness to this fact.
In 1952 the young Egyptian military officers brought a bloodless coup. King Farooq fled the country in a ship along with his dozen of dogs. General Naguib took over the reins of power of a broken nation yet heavily rich in its culture and civilization. In 1956, young Army Colonel Abdul Gamal Naser took over the rein of power. Suez Canal which runs through the Egyptian land in the Sinai was taken over from the Anglo-French company and nationalized. This bewildered the French and the Britishers. Suez Canal was shut till 1967 which was the back-bone of Egyptian economy. In 1967, itself, Israel committed a silent aggression against Egypt, Syria and West Bank of the Jordan River.
Israel captured the Northern shore and entire Sinai of Egypt which falls on the Northern side of Suez Canal. Suez Canal remained shut till 1973 causing catastrophe for the Egyptian economy. Israel occupied Gholan Heights of Syria and entire Palestine including West Bank and Gaza Strip. United Nations appeals and resolutions were thrown into the dustbin by US pampered child, Israel. Egypt on the other hand witnessed a grave situation to its economy, agricultural growth as well as industry which it had started in cooperation with several countries including India. President Naser had joined hands with Indian Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru and Yugoslavian President Tito to launch Non-Aligned Movement. President Naser earned the wrath of Anglo-American Bloc. In the six day war, the Israeli military completely destroyed the Egyptian air forces (mostly caught unawares on the ground) and swept through the Sinai to the Suez Canal routing the Egyptian Army, killing at least 3,000 soldiers.
The devastation also threatened to bankrupt the government. Internal squabbling among Arab nations and the growing Palestinian movement eventually strained Naser`s abilities and movements to complete his commitment. Under the strain and mental pressure, Naser collapsed and died on 29th September, 1970. When he resigned accepting his moral responsibility for his country`s defeat in the six day war, flood of Egyptian people rushed to the same Tehrir Square where they had been protesting for 18 days against President Hosni Mubarak, demanding Naser to take back his resignation. He accepted the demand of his people with a commitment that he shall liberate all occupied territories including Palestine from Israeli occupation. Anwar Sadat a minister in his government took over the reins of Egyptian empire in the most difficult situation both at home and abroad. President Sadat avenged Egyptian defeat of 1967 and liberated Sinai in 1973 thus destroying the invincibility of Israel. Israel bowed to the command of Egypt. Suez Canal was opened once again resuming its straight.
It is interesting to note that 3.5% of the global production moves through the Suez Canal whereas 7.5% of the world trade is organized via Suez Canal. Some extremists in Egypt opposed to Sadat peace initiative with Israel shot him dead during a military parade in the heart of Cairo on 14th October, 1981. Hosni Mubarak, Vice President of Egypt took over as President of Egypt the same day. A pilot by profession, an experienced Air Force commander, President Hosni Mubarak assured to revive the economy of the nation and restore its moral and dignity which egypt has been enjoying for centuries being a partner of one of the oldest civilizations of the world since times immemorial. Hosni Mubarak intentionally and unintentionally sent his able foreign minister, Umar Musa on a permanent delegation to the Arab League. He could not or did not create a "B` team to assist him in the days when the entire global phenomena was undergone a sea-change due to new combinations and permutations in international arena.
This author has been visiting Egypt right since 1968. He had an opportunity to shake hand with President Naser on 30th March, 1968 when President Naser made a historic speech in the Cairo University challenging Saudia and other critics saying that socialism was his firm belief which he said that was inseparable agenda of Islam. The tragedy in the Arab World has been that 23 Arab nations in the Middle-East and in North Africa never saw eye to eye with each other. The kingdoms never shook hands with Sheikhdoms whereas both refused to accept the new winds of change, democracy, which were shut by the authoritarian rulers to enter their windows. Partition of Palestine in 1947 under UN Resolution 181 was due to the fact that Arabs were not united. Yasir Arafat who happened to be one of the greatest friends of this author for nearly three decades kept on raising the slogan for the Arab unity. He used to say that Arab unity lies in the liberation of Palestine. It was a blunder on the part of seasoned and leading Arab leaders to support Anglo-American Bloc in their aggression against Iraq in 1991 and again in 2003.
After Naser and Arafat it was only President Saddam Husein who sincerely opposed the US ugly designs to colonize Arab World. Anglo-American interest including Europe was Arab oil. They found Saddam Hussein as if he were a Cobra sitting on oil. They wanted to remove him and they removed. President Arafat was also killed in a conspiracy. The Arab failed to support the Palestinian cause. Mr. Hosni Mubarak remained a great friend of Anglo-American Bloc for 25 years from 1981 to 2005 as long as he served the US interest. Hosni Mubarak started showing his caveat to the Americans when they tried to divide Palestinians and supported Israel in their aggressive attitude towards Gaza Strip. Mr. Hosni Mubarak was not happy with the US policy towards Palestine.
The US policy since 2006 has taken "U` turn in its attitude towards Egyptian leaders particularly Hosni Mubarak. Lack of trust by the US in President Hosni Mubarak surfaced when President Obama addressing a high level gathering in Cairo University failed to mention the name of the Egyptian President in his speech. President Obama ignored the sitting President of Egypt. This author in his letter dated 13th June, 2009 addressed to President Obama had strongly protested for ignoring to mention the name of the President of Egypt.
This author had said in his letter,
"The cycle of suspicion and discord between the West and the East cannot end as long as there continued lack of mutual interest and respect. The President of the USA standing at the historic platform of the Cairo University of Egypt missed to mention the name of Mr. Hosni Mubarak, the President of Egypt, one of the greatest civilizations of the world. Was that due to lack of respect or lack of interest? The seeds of suspicion blow into discord if not removed in time. This is how the Belfour Agreement (1917) betrayed the Arabs thus led to an unending conflict in West Asia. Again, UK with US backing betrayed the Arabs by facilitating Zionists to take control over Palestine which was under its mandate".
In my several notes authored on the Arab situation I had raised this issue of the US friendship with Hosni Mubarak. The US wanted a government in Egypt which toed US line and policy particularly in reference to Israel and Palestine. The Israeli leadership and particularly that of the present Israeli Prime Minister, Mr. Netan Yahoo have been carrying the old Zionist plans to establish Greater Israel by standing its boundaries as were proposed in the Zionist original map of Israel.
The Ultimate Revolution in Egypt has proved that a revolution can be brought by a popular, peaceful and disciplined movement of the people. In Spain people throughout the king and instead of freedom got a dictator who ruthlessly ruled for quarter of a century. The entire world shall be waiting for the advent of democracy and liberation from the army rule in Egypt. Only the time shall tell. Effects of this Ultimate Revolution which has raised more questions vis-Ã -vis Arab world then answer shall be dealt with in the following article.
By Prof. Bhim Singh