Have you ever gazed into the heavens at night staring at the billions of stars that fill our night`s sky wondering what else is out there, if so, this is your lucky day.
Recently, NASA performed a comprehensive study of hundreds of galaxies which was observed by the Keck telescopes in Hawaii and NASA`s Hubble Space Telescope and surprisingly found that the hypothesis of when the universe was formed back some sixteen billion years ago these galaxies were set without any chance of changing or movin. Also, the data studied was incorrect on their assumption.
Susan Kassin who is an astronomer at NASA`s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland and the study`s lead researcher stated, "Astronomers thought disk galaxies in the nearby universe had settled into their present form by about 8 billion years ago, with little additional development since. "The trend we`ve observed instead shows the opposite, that galaxies were steadily changing over this time period." (Kassin, S.)
As Astronomers continue to study these ever-changing galaxies they compare the information about each one against their first hypothesis and doing the study in this format have discovered that the star forming galaxies take the shape of orderly disk-shaped systems like the well-known Andromeda galaxy or the ever popular Milky Way galaxy where the rotation out does or dominates over the internal motions.
The other types of galaxies such as the ones known as the Distant Blue galaxies which are galaxies that indicate there are still stars forming within them tend to be much different than the star forming galaxies in that the distant blue galaxies tend to be more disorganized in their motion which moves in multiple directions but on the other hand these types of galaxies are shifting towards greater organization to the present time and the disorganized motions dissipate and the rotation speeds of them increase.
These galaxies are shifting towards settling into well-behaved disks. Astronomers have also discovered that the larger the galaxy or the galaxies that are the most massive show the highest level of organization. The blue galaxies are also the galaxies that seem to be the ones still and ever-changing in the formation and motions bit astronomers have also discovered that these galaxies are moving in the direction of or transforming into the more organized galaxies such as the Milky Way galaxy.
Benjamin Weiner who is an astronomer at the University of Arizona in Tucson stated, "Previous studies removed galaxies that did not look like the well-ordered rotating disks now common in the universe today. By neglecting them, these studies examined only those rare galaxies in the distant universe that are well-behaved and concluded that galaxies didn`t change." (Benjamin, W.)
Rather than limit their sample to certain galaxy types, the researchers instead looked at all galaxies with emission lines bright enough to be used for determining internal motions. Emission lines are the discrete wavelengths of radiation characteristically emitted by the gas within a galaxy. They are revealed when a galaxy`s light is separated into its component colors. These emission lines also carry information about the galaxy`s internal motions and distance. (www.nasa.gov)
The NASA team studies multiple blue galaxies from the Deep Extragalactic Evolutionary Probe 2 (DEEP2) Redshift Survey, a project that employs Hubble and the twin 10-meter telescopes at the W. M. Keck Observatory in Hawaii and found that these galaxies have masses that range about 0.3 percent to 100 percent of their home galaxy. These galaxies are also located about two to eight billion light-years away.
Scientists also found that within the past eight billion years the complete number of mergers between galaxies whether massive or tiny have decreased sharply. Because of this information, scientists also found that the overall rate of star formation and the disruptions of supernova explosions that are linked with star formations have also decreased sharply. Scientists are also trying to link the evolutionary trend they have observed with the above stated factors.
As scientists continue to study the evolutionary trends and the factors that form the complete puzzle of these various trends they can adjust their tools such as computer simulations of the evolution of galaxies until these models are able to replicate the observed trends they are currently studying. Studying the galaxies in this way will lead and guide scientists to the physical processes that are the culprit for making the overall process behave like it is behaving.
So, as you look up at the twinkling sky at night filled with billions of stars and you point to a specific star that you have seen in the same position over and over for the last year or so; just remember that one star that has been sitting in that position in the sky for that length of time may not be there the next night as our galaxies are ever-changing and have been for the last eight billion years or so.
ASTRONOMERS UNCOVER A SURPRISING TREND IN GALAXY EVOLUTION, (www.nasa.gov)
The game of baseball especially in the Major Leagues has also evolved over the past one-hundred or so years into a game the fans can enjoy over and over again with every fastball thrown or crack of the bat. Keep up to date on the status of my next book which is all about the game of baseball. It is being published by Tate Publishing and is currently in the production stages of the publishing process which takes about six months or so to fully complete. It will then be available for sale through Tate Publishing and their website and other various websites. I will keep you all informed of the released date so you can purchase your copy of it.