October 11th, 2009 19:30 EST
History of War [Part 3] Land of the Civilized Lords
History of War, The Dawning, Part 1
History of War [Part 2] Round Towers, the Byzantines, and Bohemond
The year: 10,700 B.C. Tribes, villages, and renegade bands committed rampant theft. They stole food from each other. They stole women from each other. They stole each other - for slavery. Theft and rape sowed seeds of violence. Villages retaliated. Under the starlit skies, storytellers loomed over the fires and spoke of wicked men from generations past. They were prone to exaggeration and sought to make demons out of their ancestral enemies. "They are not human, that other tribe - they are beasts! They are demons! And that village over the hill? They are possessed by evil spirits." Grudges were nursed and spears were kept close at hand.
The marauders were willing to kill. They lusted for women who shunned them. They coveted "easy food." It has recently been learned that many desperate primitives even acquired a taste for human flesh: "Evidence for violence [in Europe] exists at many [village] sites. Massacres of whole villages and portions of villages appear to be in evidence at sites such as Talheim, Schletz-Asparn, Herxheim, and Vaihingen. Mutilated remains suggesting cannibalism have been noted at Eilsleben and Ober-Hogern." 
A recent discovery made the world collectively gasp. Cannibalism can spread certain illnesses that leave a genetic clue, such as a prison disease. These disease "watermarks" can be found in DNA. The results are shocking. Prehistoric cannibalism was widespread.  The movie, "Thirteenth Warrior", was close to the mark.
Hunger was not their only motivation. Plundering primitives could make themselves "rich" with exotic sea shells, precious furs, and "exquisitely" chiseled flint. Thieving eyes spied on every village and every tribe, yearning for weaknesses, probing for opportunities. I believe that people in the Stone Age put more mental energy into violence than into invention. It became an art form. Sadder still, more mental energy was also wasted on rage and hatred. [One need look no further than the typical office of any large work place.]
Even the honest Stone Age people were dragged down. They needed to be vigilant. They needed sentries and scouts. They encouraged combat practice. They constructed crude defenses. They crafted Stone Age weapons. Of course many Stone Age people were peace loving, but if a tribe or village refused to fight and defend itself, odds were that they became slaves if not massacred. The good news was that prehistoric people had trouble hanging on to unwilling slaves.
It was also an ugly time. Flies, fleas, and lice were a way of life - ticks too. The infection of a single nick could kill you. Some early cave dwellers slept on their garbage and above their own dead. [CoC 18, fig 5]
Many people had worms. Without clay pots, vermin brazenly raided their food - ants, roaches, mice, and rats were practically part of the family. As for romance, gold diggers were more like "flint diggers" - the men with the most chiseled rocks were the best catches. If such a guy were thoughtful enough to pick lice and fleas off of her, a woman counted herself lucky. They did not yet know how to write, but they created cave paintings. Second only to the ability to speak, that was an important step toward writing.
One village began to develop rapidly. They lived close to the Turkish border of Syria. For the next thousand years, these Stone Age hunter-gatherers grew into a remarkably advanced culture, surpassing the rest of the world. Explained earlier in "Mystery of the Six Towers" , recent archaeological findings have shed light on the seed of civilization - the Tell Qaramel Dig. I refer to them with the nickname "Round Tower People" because they constructed the oldest known towers on earth - dated at 9,650 B.C., and all five towers were round.
They had knowledge of the sea, probably because they were early traders who walked along the mysterious dunes and heard thunderous waves in the distance. The Five Tower Dig is rich with artifacts, which also indicates trade. The Round Tower People had wild asses [onangers], which would have helped them become the first significant traders in the world. If they were indeed traders, that could explain how they developed so rapidly. They could have seen how other cultures progressed and imitated them. By 9,500 B.C., the Round Tower People grew crops and had a variety of livestock. They fletched their own arrows, and at least one of them was armed with a great flint axe imported from near Jericho. Their location was well situated for trade, just fifteen miles north of Allepo, Syria. Waterways run all through that area, some pouring out to the Mediterranean and the Euphrates flows through the Fertile Crescent and down into the Persian Gulf. 
In the beginning, most craftsmen were part time hunter-gathers. With early grain fields, the Round Tower People had more time to practice craftsmanship as part time sustenance farmers. Availability of food meant that more craftsmen had a chance to hone their craft. Children were raised in workshops, and more knowledge passed down to each generation. Such an inheritance meant a major head start. The rest of the world sought the wares of these multi-generational master craftsmen. The Round Tower People might have been the first master craftsmen on earth [which was why they were able to construct their towers in the first place].
Traders here experienced quite an eyeful to stimulate brain activity. The odd thing of today is that technicians and scientists are more like wizards to us. Back then, new concepts were more easily learned by simply watching. Even a modern person could fire up synapses from trying to visualize earlier ways of life [especially during childhood].
Copper beads were dated around 9,000 B.C., the oldest known metal artifacts in the world. They were found near the Tigris-Euphrates, most likely brought there by traders from Round Tower descendents who lived close to the Euphrates River. The copper might have been mined and smelted from somewhere near the Dead Sea, hauled by wild asses to the Euphrates, and then shipped downstream in a dugout canoe or crude raft. The primitive trade vessel would have been loaded with more flint than copper. The world was still in the Stone Age, and copper would be viewed as a mystical talisman for the next 4,500 years. [For most of the world, you could easily tack on another thousand years or more.] 
There would have been plenty of prosperous hunter-gatherers along the Euphrates River during this time, eager to trade for flint spear heads chiseled by master craftsmen [probably descendents of the Round Tower People]. Perhaps the copper beads were a gift to a powerful chieftain or shaman.
Few knew copper`s secrets. Many had never even seen a copper trinket yet. The superstitious believed it was magic and godlike. Those who did not fear copper valued it. Even Stone Age atheists would have treasured copper, the way it influenced others. Copper, I believe, sparked the imagination. But change was still slow.
Jericho was first to learn from the Round Tower People and constructed around tower of their own [dated from 7,000 to 8,000 B.C.]. The next culture to leap ahead was Catal Huyuk [or Ã‡atal HÃ¶yÃ¼k] in Turkey back in 6,500 B.C. They mirrored almost every major advancement of the Round Tower People except for stonework [as research stands now]. But a fourth area took to farming with a will - the Fertile Crescent in Iraq. Primitive river craft would have had an easy time plying the Euphrates River. Considering how close the Round Tower People were to the upper Euphrates, it makes sense that they brought many of their ways down to villages along the banks of the Euphrates, possibly even building an early colony there.
Along the lower Euphrates, stone was scarce. People there would need to learn how to bake bricks before any significant masonry occurred. But man does not live on rocks alone. The Tigris and Euphrates aided farming in their Fertile Crescent, and the people of the Two Rivers thrived. Their descendents are known as the Sumerians. For now, descendents of the Round Tower People probably laughed at their feeble mud hovels.
A thousand years had passed since copper`s origin, and life began to improve, but only in one tiny speck of the Stone Age world. A group of people built around tower in Jericho sometime around 8000 to 7000 B.C. [The Round Tower People seem the most logical ones to have built it.] Jericho flourished as a large community, possibly the first city on earth. Silly as it sounds, one of Jericho`s first major exports was apparently flint. Prehistorians are not yet in agreement, but it`s becoming difficult to dispute that Jericho was far in advance of the Sumerians by 7000 B.C. Jericho had a population of 2,500 by that time and was ringed by a wall, predating Sumer by 3,000 years, possibly even more. [Sumer only began building walls around 2,700 B.C. while carbon dating might move Jericho`s development up another thousand years.]  Jericho had burial practices similar to the Round Tower People, burying their dead under the floors of their homes "or even under their beds".  They also removed heads [same as the Round Tower People], and decorated skulls. According to scripture, they were the Children of Cain.  Note also that Cain was a farmer. The people of Ã‡atal HÃ¶yÃ¼k also decorated skulls. 
I am not sure which region or century, but someone started messing around. By pressing an object into clay the same way, he [or she] kept creating the same mark. I imagine the mark had a strong resemblance to something that intrigued the discoverer. A trader kept the object as the first "clay seal".
Most people think of wax seals, such as a royal seal. But back then, they stamped their seals into clay, leaving their special, unique marks. This first trader was thus able to seal his containers or bundles. The only way to open the container was to break the seal. Stone cutters began experimenting with seals, trying to work out more interesting and unique images.
A new trade was born, seal cutting. There is no telling if the first seal was made of wood, but stone became the seal of choice for some time. Seals were also used for art. The art invested in a seal could be duplicated any number of times. Not only did people along the Euphrates excel at seal cutting, so did China. Since stone was uncommon in the Fertile Crescent, it seems reasonable to me that descendents of the Round Tower People [or Jericho] probably cut the first stone seals.
Trade increased. It reached the point that merchants were losing track. They needed a way to record their inventory. Someone came up with an idea. A trader began to use clay tokens in 8000 B.C. By counting the tokens, traders could record how much of each trade good they had.
There`s a merry web page that explains this.  The author, Sean Williams, mentioned how widespread this practice became: "a vast region comprising the modern states of Turkey, Syria, Israel, Jordan, Iraq and Iran ... The ungainliness of needing to carry a hundred little clay tokens to signify a 100-bale sale of wheat seems almost ridiculous to modern observers, yet this system lasted for nearly four thousand years."
Sean Williams referred to this as the Token Era.
By 5,300 B.C., the Sumerians had trailblazed the concept of irrigation: "Mesopotamian civilization in place. Cities of Sumer are the first to practice intensive, year-round agriculture." 
4500 B.C.: the Kirbat Hamra Ifdan foundry [near the Dead Sea] is the oldest foundry known. To them, copper became a trade item. The mysticism of copper died in that part of the world very quickly, although it remained magical to most primitive parts of the world for the next thousand or so years.  [Researchers are doing their best in Jordan. Due to all the local violence, they sometimes have to hightail it out of there. We would have an easier time praising their ancestors if terrorists would quit blowing up civilians.]
People along the Euphrates imported copper massively; copper tools were also dated at the same time this foundry began. Craftsmen in the Tigris-Euphrates used copper adzes, axes, chisels, hammers, and copper nails dated at 4,500 B.C. Archaeologists also found Sumerian copper drill bits.  In exchange, the Sumerians became that area`s breadbasket, exporting massive quantities of food and other agricultural goods. They bartered rather than "sold". Not all craftsmen could afford copper yet, nor was copper hard enough for every task. The Fertile Crescent would still use stone tools for the next fifteen hundred years or so.
It is interesting to speculate if the Egyptians could have opened a trade route with the Dead Sea copper foundry. An overland route to the Nile would be over three hundred miles. The Euphrates River is roughly the same distance. [Casual map reading alert.] As for sailing part of the way, there was no sea trade in 4500 B.C. that I know of. On the other hand, the Euphrates had established trade for [at least] 3,500 years by the time of this foundry.
Prehistoric people colonized countless isles, but in primitive times, the sea was not for the weak of heart. Earliest trade was what travelers carried on their backs. Major trade began with wild asses, streams, and rivers. The earliest vessel I know of is a dugout canoe dated at 6,300 B.C., but I suspect that primitive river vessels were used for trade on the Euphrates no later than 9000 B.C. Boats in the Aegean Sea apparently managed to reach Crete as early as 7000 B.C., the date that the ancestors of Knossos first arrived.
Despite colonizing islands, seafaring technology had a long way to go before trade was established. By 4000 B.C., Egypt had rowing vessels. As for sails, the Nile crafts used them by 3000 B.C. [Egyptians were blessed with favorable winds. River vessels drifted downstream, and the Nile winds are so consistent about blowing upwind that they relied on them to sail back upstream.] By 3000 B.C., Nile transport was very efficient, and that was also the time when Egypt went to sea and traded with the island of Byblos.
Despite Egyptian brilliance, the people of the Nile lagged behind, making them less desirable to trade within those early times. They just started irrigation in 5000 B.C. They did not have the benefit of much contact with the Round Tower People. Nor did Egypt have much rainfall. Without strong leadership and detailed planning, primitive farming along the Nile was tricky. The most primitive farming methods did not include irrigation. Egypt needed cleverness to overcome that and other challenges.
While Egypt just started learning how to use spoons and pottery , the Sumerians were far ahead. Compared with the rest of the world, Sumer had been busy. Even clay tokens were becoming too much for Sumerian traders. They kept their tokens in clay pots which are referred to as envelopes: " ... not quite the sort you`d use to send your granny an apologetically late birthday card." [Sean Williams] Again and again, they had to recount every blasted token in their pots.
Around 4000 B.C., someone had a bright idea - why not put markings on the clay pot "envelopes"? These pots were no longer mere containers. They doubled as "record-pots". The little markings referenced what was inside them - no one realized that there was no real need to open up the pots anymore. Why keep counting tokens? But they did anyway. This might seem totally insane. But hey, this is how a pioneer must think - most often, people can only formulate ideas one step at a time.
To put it another way, most innovation is brain-storming in slow motion.
Being in the hub of the Old World [land access to three continents at once] was an advantage that both the Nile and the Euphrates enjoyed. But the Nile flowed from more isolated Africa while the Euphrates flowed from wide open Asia.
Before the wheel, oxen were already used to drag sledges. The plow was another important use of the ox, increasing productivity.  The wheel appeared in Sumer around 4000 B.C. and yet, like most of the world, they still needed stone tools. The first known wheel was used by potters. Sumerian warriors began riding four wheeled chariots into battle, drawn by oxen [or "up to battle" at least].
Across the Endless Sea in a faraway land, another culture also invented the wheel: Mayan Native Americans. They used it for a child`s toy. Their potters used lathes, and the only nearby beast of burden, the llama, was probably better off without a cart on its treacherous mountain routes [used by the Incas]. But wheels have many uses. Children were raised with the concept, and it was neatly filed away in their minds: "toy". Isn`t it intriguing that a culture can independently discover/invent something and not see its potential? Mayans were brilliant too; Spaniards were amazed.
"These toys were what we would call `pull toys` and they were generally made of fired clay in the form of an animal (real or imagined) standing on a platform supported by four ceramic wheels." The children tied strings to their animal-toys` necks and rolled them around. But wait, the Mayans also constructed a sixty mile road, the sacbeob [Yucatan of Mexico]. It was a perfectly straight sixty mile road. "Archaeologists have found what may have been stone rollers used to compact the road bed during construction."  Stone rollers? But no functional wheel. They could have used human drawn carts. I guess the children must have been very gentle with their toys; a typical nipper of today would be hauling things on top of his [or her] wheeled toy. [But could that be due to what children see?] How we raise children has a direct impact on their inventiveness.
Mayans probably trained their children to be very careful with their clay toys [understandable]. Inventing more durable wheeled toys did not occur to them, and their culture was held back as a result of such a minor thing. [Nor were the Mayans alone in their oversights as we will continue to see.]
Speaking of toys, back across the Atlantic again, an archaeologist discovered a toy boat a few miles south of Ur [a city in the Fertile Crescent]. This little clay toy was a mere trinket back in 3,500 B.C., but archaeologists prize it because the toy had a step for a mast. The little mast [made of wood] rotted away five thousand years ago, but that tiny clay socket [or step] convinces researchers that jibs were sighted along the Euphrates no later than 3,500 B.C., the first clear evidence of sailing in the world.  The sail stimulated trade even more.
The traders used reed "styluses" to mark their record-pots. The markings began to adopt traditional meanings and archaeologists refer to the marks as "cuneiform" [Latin for "wedge"]. After lugging their heavy pot "envelopes" around for another five hundred years, someone came up with an idea - why not simply put those markings on a tablet and leave the clay pot at home? We may never know when the last trader quit storing his pot-envelopes. [Would it be a complete surprise if someone still keeps "envelope" pots in his cellar?] Generally speaking, sometime around 3500 to 3000 B.C., pot-envelopes and tokens were no longer used. They just relied on the tablet markings.
The year: 3500 B.C. A Sumerian thought to herself [or himself], "Why not use these trader markings to record other things as well?" That was the estimated date of the Kish Tablet, the oldest known Sumerian writing. That small block of limestone is one of the world`s greatest treasures. Sean Williams described it as "proto-cuneiform pictograms". [Note the word, "pictograms". Remember what I "said" about cave paintings?] The concept of writing had dawned in the Land of the Civilized Lords [known to us as Sumer]. "Chicken or the egg" question: maybe the Kish Tablet inspired trader tablets? [I have not bothered to dig any deeper - just a thought.] Regardless, they really went at it. "About half a million clay tablets have been recovered in excavations across the region since the mid-nineteenth century." 
It hardly matters how brilliant an idea is if it is not passed to others. Through all of history, the most powerful breakthrough in war is the ability to record what works - to write. Once ideas could be written down, primitive people had a problem competing with civilization. Every culture would love to stake a claim as being the first to develop writing. Was it truly the Sumerians? Perhaps not. The Narmer Plate of Egypt could mean Egyptian cuneiform as early as 4468 B.C.  If true, then a traveler from Egypt might have been the first to think of marking a token pot.
People in the Far East made markings on turtle shells as early as 6000 B.C. that could arguably called writing. "There have recently been discoveries of tortoise-shell carvings dating back to c. 6000 B.C., like Jiahu Script, Banpo Script ..."  To be literate, Sumerians had to memorize 600 cuneiform symbols [CoC p. 150]. There could, however, have been 100 more symbols that were less common - 700 cuneiform symbols in all.
Many people try to prove genetic superiority through their culture being "the first". But archaeologists demonstrate time and again that all people are capable of overlooking the obvious for many centuries. To me, being "the first" is not so important as being the one who triumphs in the end. The only reason we need to find out "first" is to better understand the most powerful weapon on earth - the human mind. Study of war is the study of how we think. War is nothing more than acting out on violent thoughts. To narrow it down further - the most dangerous thoughts are military innovations. It`s a two edged sword. If peace loving nations abstain too much from violent thought, heartless thugs become increasingly tempted by opportunities.
The heart of Sumer was the Euphrates River. What does "Euphrates" mean? "Copper River" in Sumerian.  But guess what? The Sumerians did not call themselves that. They were actually the Sag-gi-ga ["Blacked Headed People"] who lived in Ki-en-gir ["Place of the Civilized Lords"]. It was another race that called the Sag-gi-ga "Sumerians" [an exonym]. 
The Blacked Headed People reaped the bounty of not only their Copper River, but also the Tigris. They built canals, reservoirs, and dikes - irrigation. Compared with the rest of the world, food was in enough abundance that people of Ki-en-gir had more time to think and progress. Slavery also helped them prosper. They built thriving colonies, but rule outside one`s own city was a challenge back then, partly because horses were slow in coming to the "Land of the Civilized Lords". Their chariots, first drawn by oxen, would later be drawn by wild asses.
"The fish-shaped Babylonian valley lying between the rivers, where walled towns were surrounded by green fields and numerous canals flashed in the sunshine." To the west was the desert that became so searingly hot that: "... during the dry season `the rocks branded the body` and occasional sandstorms swept in blinding folds toward the `plain of Shinar` like demon hosts who sought to destroy the world. To the east the skyline was fretted by the Persian Highlands, and amidst the southern mountains dwelt the fierce Elamites, the hereditary enemies of the Sumerians, although a people apparently of the same origin. Like the Nubians and the Libyans, who kept watchful eyes on Egypt, the Elamites seemed ever to be hovering on the eastern frontier of Sumeria, longing for an opportunity to raid and plunder." 
Bronze tools became common in Ki-en-gir by 2500 B.C. One timeline even mentions bronze tools being "common" in the Middle East between 3000 B.C. and 2900 B.C. It seems strange to imagine a work table with bronze tools next to stone tools. That is a sign of progress.
Sumerian trade would leave its lasting mark - even on the Bible and the English language. For example, Sumerian weights and measures [the sheckels and talents] were in later centuries to be terms of coinage. Romans and Greeks had coins known as "talents", referred to in the King James Bible. Today`s word, "talent", stems from Sumerian scales.
Children were well behaved. Teachers beat them with canes. A disobedient child could become a slave in an instant, and Daddy walks home with a profit. The slave market was glutted. Only the finest flesh was more prized than a wild ass. 
Each city-state of Ki-en-gir was protected by walls and built up around a temple. The priests became so rich that their temples also served as banks [even before there were coins]. The priest-bankers had an embedded slave-production system. If you failed to pay your loan back to your temple, the priests sold you off as a slave to help appease their angered "gods". Criminals also were enslaved. No currency existed yet, but any nonperishable trade good had value, including raw gold and silver. Metals were already stored as ingots as early as 3500 B.C. [if not sooner]. The priests hoarded such things in their temple-banks. While gold was already more precious than silver, it was not as great - four measures of silver were worth one measure of gold. The priests were also sacred pimps. The pious priest-pimps kept their temples well stocked with holy wh*res. 
"Women would spend a day, or a week, or a year serving at the Temple as a priestess, as a sacred Prostitute, as a wh*re in service to the Goddess. There they would be worshiped as the incarnation of the Goddess, as The Goddess Herself [Ishtar]." Ishtar was later referred to as the Wh*re of Babylon. 
The other temple buildings were dwarfed by the vast towers called "tower-temples". Tower-temples were square, and they tapered toward the top to simulate a mountain. The Black Headed People referred to their tower-temples as "mountain-houses". [Interestingly, Native Americans constructed similar temples in the New World.]
"The tower-temple erected at Babylon in later times gave rise to the tale of the Tower of Babel [or Babylon], as preserved by the Hebrews." [CoC p. 127-128]. The ziggurat [tower-temple] of Marduk was named Etemenanki ["Temple of the foundation of heaven and earth" in Sumerian.] It was built in Babylon.
From their tower-temples, the priests held power over the people through early divination. [CoC p. 149] They told people that the stars revealed secrets to them. They "saw signs" in the livers and entrails of various animals and had the power to "know" who the goddesses [and gods] favored as king. Frequently, it was the High Priest himself who the "gods" anointed. Standing atop his tower-temple, the High Priest might even name himself "King".
Sumerian priests got away with telling people all kinds of such gibberish. It`s intriguing to note that progress was so slow even in Ki-en-gir that their oral tradition forgot important moments of progress.  They thought of bread and ovens as divine gifts. They believed the gods were the inventors. [And if you still think the Sumerian priests had perfectly divine knowledge, remember to vote on Super Wednesday.] Progress looks much faster in history studies than it did in real life. Historians can step back and watch the dots form a picture. Living in those days was not so exciting.
Death Pit of Ur:
In the Sumerian city of Ur, a major dig had uncovered one of the most significant finds in Ki-en-gir. It was the lavish tomb of Queen Pu-abi [or Puabi], known as the Death Pit of Ur. She was found wearing so much gold and jewels that people are skeptical if the petite woman could have stood up.
She had a lyre of gold which people still rave about, even though the dig was completed in 1934 (a.d.). She had a pachisi board game [the ancestor of modern Parcheesi]. 73 other bodies were found, apparently people who were to serve her in the afterlife "eerily laid out in parallel rows, all of their arms and legs bent at the same angle".  The guards wore copper helmets [the first known example of metal plating].
Maybe it was pachisi enthusiasts who killed themselves there. Their bodies were next to the poison they drank. There`s even one account that 59 bodies were still holding their cups of poison.  The death and burial of this pachisi-loving queen varies slightly from 2600 to 2500 B.C. As a boy raised in Ur, young Abram [later named Abraham] would have heard outrageous legends about the queen. Perhaps he played pachisi while hearing them. Young Abram was also exposed to an earthy culture awash with some of the most lewd and asinine myths the world ever blushed to hear. 
As early as 3500 B.C., nomads might have told Sumerians wild tales about strange warriors with magic weapons. [Ancient copper ores generally had large amounts of arsenic in them to begin with, and the Maykop culture learned to deliberately add more arsenic to their copper. It was known as "arsenic bronze", possibly the first man-made alloy prior to the more commonly known tin/copper alloy. Either kind of bronze would have seemed magically powerful to barbarians during this time in history. There is a debate of exactly when Maykop arsenic bronze should be dated, anywhere from 3500 B.C. to 2500 B.C.]
The ruler of each Sumerian city-state was either a priest or a king [or both]. Most rulers in Ki-en-gir were men with one exception - Kug-Baba [the tavern-keeper] in Kish [who might have led a successful revolt]. The Sumerians respected women more than most cultures in their time. What that has to do with war, I don`t know. Sorry about that, moving on ....
This has mainly been about development, trade, and innovation that paved the way for the Land of the Civilized Lords. It was important logistical groundwork [half of war is logistics], but now we are in position to enter the nitty-gritty of recorded combat. Hopefully Monday, I should be ready to submit the History of War [Part 4] Wars in Ki-en-gir. We can now move beyond the vagueness of early Sumerian "near-history" and study actual wars.
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History of War, The Dawning, Part 1 http://thesop.org/history/2009/09/21/history-of-war-the-dawning-part-1
History of War [Part 2] Round Towers, the Byzantines, and Bohemond http://thesop.org/history/2009/10/08/history-of-war-part-2-round-towers-the-byzantines-and-bohemond
Mystery of the Six Towers [9,650 B.C.] http://thesop.org/history/2009/10/09/mystery-of-the-six-towers-9650-bc
Mystery of the Six Towers Update - Catal Huyuk http://thesop.org/history/2009/10/09/mystery-of-the-six-towers-update-catal-huyuk
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All the source web pages below have more information. There`s an excellent web page with good images if you are still curious about the Sumerians and warfare:
[CoC] Conquest of Civilization [J. H. Breasted] 1938  http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/gabrmetz/gabr0004.htm  http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/History_of_writing  http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/timeline/time0002.htm  http://www.lhaasdav.com/timelines/timeline_30000_1000_bc.html  http://ambergriscaye.com/museum/digit4.html  [The merry Sean Williams page.] http://heritage-key.com/world/cuneiform-birth-writing
 Myths of Babylon and Assyria [Donald A. Mackenzie] 1915  [note four standards on the left] http://ancientegypt.hypermart.net/fourstandards/index.htm
 http://www.theology.edu/sumer.htm  http://archaeology.about.com/od/lterms/qt/lbk.htm  http://the-red-thread.net/star-of-david.html [copper river]  multiple sources: http://www.economicexpert.com/a/Sumer.htm http://sci.tech-archive.net/Archive/sci.lang/2005-03/1858.html http://sci.tech-archive.net/Archive/sci.archaeology/2005-01/1688.html http://www.sumerian.org/sumerfaq.htm [gets into detail incl. "civilized children" possibility]  Native American moat http://www.americanarchaeology.com/southeastern1.html
 http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/300/5619/640 [and a second web address which is easier to access ...] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6VJ1-494HN3R-2&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&searchStrId=1032146743&_rerunOrigin=google&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=8742c5fa50375a242afda923b7f305ad  http://proteus.brown.edu/harmansah/admin/download.html?attachid=6315589. 
http://antiquities.org.il/article_Item_eng.asp?sec_id=17&subj_id=487&id=1300&module_id=#as  9650 BC towers http://thesop.org/history/2009/10/09/mystery-of-the-six-towers-9650-bc  Susa http://www.branmyson.com/history_papers/susa.php  Jericho http://www.answers.com/topic/prehistory http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O48-Jericho.html  http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?historyid=ab63  excellent but obscene mythology alert: http://www.lost-history.com/apocrypha1.html  Ishtar http://www.ishtartemple.org/history.htm  http://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/196402/putting.the.wind.to.work.htm  Death Pit of Ur http://articles.latimes.com/1998/oct/01/entertainment/ca-27995  http://thesop.org/history/2009/10/09/mystery-of-the-six-towers-update-catal-huyuk  http://thesop.org/history/2009/09/21/history-of-war-the-dawning-part-1  http://thesop.org/history/2009/10/09/mystery-of-the-six-towers-update-catal-huyuk